Featured Post

Il Nono Pianeta

Forse Nibiru esiste davvero: c'è un altro pianeta nel sistema solare

Tuesday, April 7, 2015

NEARING EXTINCTION


Il tasso di estinzione è oggi fino a 1000 volte superiore rispetto a quello naturale

«Il futuro non può essere affrontato senza difendere la biodiversità. Non solo per la natura in sé, ma anche per i 7 miliardi di abitanti del pianeta. È l’ultima chiamata per i leader mondiali: mettiamo in sicurezza la vita sulla Terra».

«Finché vivremo senza i limiti imposti dalla natura, finché ignoreremo le nostre responsabilità di abitanti consapevoli del pianetala stessa sopravvivenza umana rimarrà sotto minaccia». 





La storia ci giudicherà, male, quando i posteri si renderanno conto che abbiamo venduto gli ultimi esemplari di rinoceronte nero (Diceros bicornis). Proprio così, osservandone un esemplare, un enorme mammifero lungo circa 3,5 metri e che può pesare fino a 1.400 chili, possiamo forse scorgere il cartellino con il prezzo, circa 350mila dollari.


È questa la cifra per la quale è stato venduto un rinoceronte nero all’asta a Dallas, in Texas. Il vincitore dell’asta, che si è svolta nel gennaio del 2014, ha ottenuto una licenza che gli permette di abbattere un animale in via di estinzione in Namibia e di portare a casa un trofeo. Il messaggio  che viene dato è profondamente sbagliato secondo le associazioni ambientaliste.

“Da un lato vengono compiuti grandi sforzi a livello internazionale per proteggere i rinoceronti e insegnare alla gente che vanno preservati, dall’altro ne permettiamo la caccia ad un’elite privilegiata in modo che queste persone possano appendere la testa di questi maestosi animali sul proprio camino”, si legge in un comunicato della Humane Society degli Stati Uniti.

Attualmente vivono in Africa circa 5mila rinoceronti neri, la Namibia, dopo il Sudafrica, è uno degli habitat più importanti. Entrambi i paesi vendono ogni anno qualche licenza di caccia per abbattere i rinoceronti devolvendone il ricavato per la conservazione della specie. Alcuni gruppi internazionali di conservazione sono favorevoli a queste battute di caccia per raccogliere fondi per proteggere gli animali.

Secondo il Dallas Safari Club, presso il quale si è svolta l’asta per la licenza di caccia al rinoceronte in Namibia, gli abbattimenti mirati aiuteranno a gestire la popolazione di rinoceronti e forniranno liquidità al governo della Namibia per contrastare il bracconaggio.

Il grave stato in cui versano attualmente i rinoceronti è dovuto alla forte richiesta del loro corno: secondo la medicina tradizionale cinese,  il corno polverizzato è in grado di guarire febbre, epilessia, malaria, avvelenamenti e persino il cancro.

È necessario proteggere questi antichi animali che hanno fatto la loro comparsa circa quaranta milioni di anni fa, ucciderli non sembra la miglior strategia di conservazione.
RINOCERONTE NERO VIA DI ESTINZIONE VENDUTO ALL'ASTA PER 350MILA DOLLARI  30-03-2015 Lorenzo Brenna

Le specie a rischio sono 21mila, 440 potrebbero estinguersi entro il 2050. La scienza lancia l’allarme, e indica anche il colpevole: l’uomo

Il Tarsio sorridente, cacciato troppo spesso per la sua carne, ha perso il proverbiale buonumore. 

Il Leopardo dell’Amur, a dispetto dell’assonanza con il più nobile dei sentimenti, lotta ogni giorno per sopravvivere. 

Il Succiamiele del Reggente, volatile australiano che si ciba del nettare di alcune piante, scompare a causa dell’agricoltura intensiva. 

E l’Okopipi, rana blu minacciata dall’inquinamento, non se la passa meglio. 

Sono i “cari estinti” (o presto tali): animali a rischio scomparsa definitiva dalla faccia della Terra. 

Una lista che si allunga ogni anno con i suoi nomi fantasiosi: l’Opossum pigmeo, il Boa arcobaleno, il Geco delle grotte (tanto per citarne altri). 


E si tinge di un unico colore, rosso come l’allarme che li riguarda: «Il futuro non può essere affrontato senza difendere la biodiversità. Non solo per la natura in sé, ma anche per i 7 miliardi di abitanti del pianeta. È l’ultima chiamata per i leader mondiali: mettiamo in sicurezza la vita sulla Terra», avverte Julia Marton-Lefèvre, direttore generale dell’Iucn (Unione mondiale per la conservazione della natura), ente che si è assunto l’onore-onere di stilare la Red List, la “lista rossa” appunto, sugli animali minacciati.


«Le funzioni vitali che queste specie garantiscono sono insostituibili», aggiunge Jane Smart, che per Iucn dirige i programmi speciali sulla salvaguardia. «Finché vivremo senza i limiti imposti dalla natura, finché ignoreremo le nostre responsabilità di abitanti consapevoli del pianeta, la stessa sopravvivenza umana rimarrà sotto minaccia». 

E i numeri, letti uno dietro l’altro, sembrano darle ragione (oltre a fare impressione): il 25% dei mammiferi, il 13% degli uccelli e ben il 41% degli anfibi sono oggi ufficialmente a rischio. Oltre 21mila specie in modo grave, di queste 440 specie potrebbero non avere più neanche un esemplare entro il 2050. 

E se negli ultimi 40 anni i vertebrati sono diminuiti del 52%, le specie d’acqua dolce addirittura del 70% (contro quelle terrestri che hanno segnato -30%). Nel complesso, quindi, il tasso di estinzione è oggi fino a 1000 volte superiore rispetto a quello naturale. 

E a questo va aggiunto che, se volessimo tenere l’attuale stile di vita e consumi, entro il 2100 di pianeti come la Terra ce ne serviranno 2,6. Ma siccome ne abbiamo uno soltanto, il risultato è che per il tarsio sorridente (e compagnia bella) non c’è più posto.

Inutile però versare lacrime di coccodrillo (anche loro in estinzione tra l’altro), perché tutto questo ha un grande colpevole: l’uomo. «Si sta avvicinando una decisione a suo modo rivoluzionaria. Nel 2016 la comunità scientifica potrebbe battezzare ufficialmente una nuova era geologica: l’antropocene. È la nostra, quella in cui viviamo e nella quale l’uomo viene riconosciuto come la principale causa delle modifiche territoriali, strutturali, climatiche e di conservazione delle specie. Esattamente come è avvenuto in passato con le grandi forze geofisiche: eruzioni vulcaniche, meteoriti o terremoti», rivela Gianfranco Bologna, direttore scientifico del Wwf Italia e appassionato divulgatore in materia. «È tutt’altro che uno scherzo. L’impatto dell’uomo sulla Terra, sulla natura e sugli animali è devastante. Basti pensare che ai primi del 900 eravamo 1,7 miliardi. Poi, di colpo, in un solo secolo siamo balzati a 7. E la crescita della popolazione sarà esponenziale anche negli anni a venire. Tutto questo significa consumo di risorse, anche quelle che fino a ieri non erano “nostre”: deserti, foreste, laghi, mari. I dati dicono che oggi assorbiamo il 25% dell’intera produttività netta del pianeta. E le immagini satellitari mostrano come abbiamo “colonizzato” il mondo. Un dato per tutti: il 50% delle terre emerse è stato fisicamente trasformato dall’intervento umano».

Con la conseguenza di decimare gli animali, nostri compagni di viaggio sulla Terra. «Abbiamo toccato un punto critico, “biosferico” perché riguarda lo sviluppo della vita: la nostra e quella degli animali», continua Bologna. «I cambiamenti climatici (tipo il riscaldamento globale), l’inquinamento, la modifica delle catene alimentari e lo spostamento delle specie aliene: sono tutte cose che abbiamo combinato noi». 

E qui il direttore scientifico del Wwf racconta un po’ di (inquietanti) aneddoti in giro per il mondo. Gli anfibi, “animali di mezzo” dell’ecosistema, li abbiamo sterminati un po’ ovunque con i funghi letali portati dall’inquinamento nelle loro pozze d’acqua; introducendo in Europa gli scoiattoli grigi americani, invece, abbiamo segnato la fine dei nostri (tipo lo scoiattolo rosso italiano); portando cinghiali e maiali alle Hawaii, isola ricchissima di specie diverse di uccelli, abbiamo praticamente dimezzato la fauna locale; con le microplastiche abbiamo soffocato i mari e i loro abitanti, pesci e coralli. «Per non parlare della “spazzatura planetaria”. Pro capite non dovremmo produrne più 1,5 tonnellate. Invece oggi noi italiani siamo a 7, come i cinesi che, in valori assoluti, dato che sono 1,4 miliardi, sono i più inquinanti di tutti. Anche se, a livello di “singolo inquinante”, i peggiori restano invece gli americani con 20 tonnellate a testa».

Esiste, poi, una vera e propria equazione dell’impatto umano: «I = P x A x T. Dove I, l’impatto appunto, è il risultato della moltiplicazione fra la popolazione mondiale (P), le attitudini e gli stili di vita (A), la tecnologia intesa in termini di conseguenze dello sviluppo industriale (T). In tutto questo», conclude Bologna, «si capisce come gli animali non abbiano poi molte possibilità di difendersi».

Tutto questo, ovviamente, ha un prezzo: per l’umanità, innanzitutto. Ma anche sul mercato nero, per i trafficanti di specie rare: così il costo al chilo delle zanne degli elefanti è arrivato a 600 dollari, quello delle ossa di tigri a 900, mentre i corni di rinoceronte superano i tre zeri. 

Persino il Pangolino, unico mammifero al mondo coperto da scaglie, costa oggi 200 dollari al chilo ed è oggetto di commerci illeciti in Asia. Ad oggi si calcola che il business delle specie protette valga 23 miliardi di dollari l’anno, quarto mercato illegale dopo droga, armi ed esseri umani. 

«A questo dobbiamo aggiungere un danno collaterale causato da Ebola», dice Davide Bomben, presidente Aiea (Associazione italiana esperti d’Africa). «Nel Continente Nero la lotta al bracconaggio e ai trafficanti stava facendo notevoli passi avanti. Purtroppo, con il virus e il conseguente crollo del turismo, abbiamo chiuso il 2014 con un +10% nell’uccisione degli animali protetti. In Kenya, in Zimbabwe e persino nella virtuosa Namibia abbiamo registrato un peggioramento nella salvaguardia. L’informazione è fondamentale per riportare la gente in Africa: perché turismo vuol dire lavoro per i locali, controllo, legalità. Sono a rischio tante specie: i predatori e le prede. E noi uomini rischiamo di perdere le singole battaglie, per la loro sopravvivenza. E la guerra, per la nostra».


HUMANS CAUSED 322 ANIMAL EXTINCTIONS IN PAST 500 YEARS  Jul 25th 2014


Ever since he started walking to raise awareness 2 years ago, Jim Nyamu has covered over 3000 miles educating the masses on the crisis of Elephant poaching for ivory


He has walked from Boston to Washington D.C highlighting illegal ivory consumption in America


He rallied the authorities and even got the First lady Margaret Kenyatta to join him on a walk. He trekked from Mombasa to Nairobi. Masai Mara to Nairobi and onwards to Isiolo. 


Nyamu carries a simple message. Ivory belongs to elephants


In 1979, Kenya had 167,000 elephants. 10 years later they were down to 16,000. 


It took the establishment of Kenya Wildlife service to bring back elephants from brink of extinction


By 2013, the population had risen to 30 000 elephants. Poaching is getting relentless. 


According Jim Nyamu, unabated, poaching could render elephants in Kenya extinct in 15 years


In most parts of Africa, elephants have disappeared. Look no further than Somalia. 


We tend to think of extinction as something that happens in the past and subject only to archaeological inquiry. 


Extinction is a continuous and ongoing process. 


Ecosystems are endangered.


The Yangtze River Dolphin was last sighted in 2006


The Caribbean monk seal was declared extinct in 2008. 


The Western black rhino extinct in 2011. 


2000 lions are left in the Kenyan plains. 


The Grevy Zebra, found only in Kenya and Ethiopia hover around that range. About 700 cheetahs remain. 


Further afield. There are about 40 Amur leopards left in wild Russia. 


Javan Rhinocerous have dwindled down to under 60. 


There are fewer than 700 Mountain gorillas remaining.


Satao, aged around 45, was attacked in Kenya's Tsavo national park


Nyamu stima che il tasso di mortalità degli elefanti nel parco nazionale di Tsavo - il più grande ecosistema di elefanti in Kenya - è del 4 per cento, mentre il tasso di natalità appena del 2. "Abbiamo visto la popolazione degli elefanti diminuire di oltre mille esemplari negli ultimi tre anni. Perdiamo più elefanti di quanti non ne nascano", osserva Nyamu, aggiungendo che, negli ultimi tre anni, cento impiegati del parco hanno perso il lavoro come conseguenza del calo della popolazione di elefanti.

Se il calo continua incontrollato, presto non ci saranno più rinoceronti né elefanti, e ciò porterà a una perdita degli incassi del turismo, una delle colonne portanti dell'economia keniana. I residenti delle aree dove si trovano i parchi nazionali fanno affidamento sugli incassi derivati dal turismo, che sono usati tra l'altro per costruire ospedali scuole, nonché infrastrutture fondamentali come le strade. Ma persino con questi dati preoccupanti sulla perdita delle due specie, il Kenya Wildlife Service (Kws) non ha ancora dichiarato il bracconaggio un disastro nazionale.
I principali gruppi ambientalisti affermano che l'aumento della domanda di avorio di contrabbando ha causato la morte di 3.000 elefanti africani all'anno dal 2007. Queste statistiche allarmanti hanno mobilitato niente meno che il direttore esecutivo dell’Unep (programma dell'Onu per l'ambiente) Achim Steiner. "L'ondata di uccisioni di elefanti in Africa e la cattura di altre specie protette nel mondo mette a rischio non soltanto la fauna selvatica, ma anche milioni di persone che vivono grazie al turismo", spiega Steiner. 
Il Kenya, ad esempio, ha visto negli anni diminuire sempre più la popolazione di elefanti per colpa del bracconaggio. Quest'ultimo, seppur illegale, continua inarrestabile. Negli anni '70 sono stati uccisi 1900 elefanti, e il numero è cresciuto fino a 8.300 negli anni '80. Nonostante un calo delle morti negli anni '90 in seguito a un divieto messo in atto dal Cites (convenzione sul commercio internazionale delle specie in via di estinzione), il crimine è settuplicato fra il 2007 e il 2010, e a nulla sono serviti i numerosi arresti all'aeroporto internazionale Jomo Kenyatta.
La situazione è stata aggravata dalle guardie forestali corrotte del Kws, che ricevono mazzette e si girano dall'altra parte mentre i bracconieri fanno il loro comodo nei parchi nazionali e nelle riserve di caccia. Sebbene il Kws neghi la complicità delle proprie guardie forestali nelle uccisioni di elefanti, Richard Leakey, ex direttore Kws e paleontologo ambientalista, sostiene che il boom del bracconaggio - e il conseguente aumento delle morti di rinoceronti ed elefanti anche nelle aree più sorvegliate - è chiaro segno che i bracconieri operano in combutta con i sorveglianti. "Non potrebbe esserci una così alta impunità se non avessero una qualche sorte di protezione da parte di chi deve far rispettare la legge", è convinto Leakey. "Se fosse solo un problema di criminali... si sa chi sono i boss", aggiunge, lamentandosi che un nocciolo duro di circa 20-30 persone organizza il bracconaggio, ma nessuno di loro è mai stato condannato.
Il direttore del Kws William Kiprono, ammette che uno dei fattori decisivi dietro il preoccupante boom del bracconaggio, che minaccia di spazzar via il preziosissimo patrimonio nazionale della fauna selvatica, sono le sanzioni di gran lunga troppo basse inflitte ai cacciatori di frodo. "Una multa di 30 mila scellini keniani (Ksh, pari a 270 euro) non dissuade i criminali che guadagnano da questa attività migliaia di dollari", dice Kiprono. 
Il boom della caccia di frodo può essere attribuito in primo luogo al crescente commercio illegale del corno di rinoceronte: la globalizzazione e la crescita economica hanno facilitato la creazione di rotte per il commercio illecitoC'è una crescente domanda di corno di rinoceronte soprattutto in Cina, Vietnam e altre destinazioni asiatiche, dove si crede che il corno abbia valore terapeutico. L'alto prezzo di mercato acquisito dal corno ha attratto associazioni a delinquere senza scrupoli, che attraverso armi sofisticate individuano e uccidono rinoceronti.
Questa drammatica situazione ha spinto la first lady keniana Margaret Kenyatta e l'amministratore dell'Undp Helen Clark a lanciare un programma per la tutela nel sud del paese. Kenyatta ritiene che la lotta al bracconaggio non può avere successo se non vengono dati alle comunità i mezzi per fermare il pericoloso aumento del crimine. "Questo orribile fenomeno deve finire. Sta riducendo vertiginosamente il nostro patrimonio nazionale, distruggendo vite e guadagni e alimentando la corruzione e l'instabilità", ha dichiarato Kenyatta.
L'apporto della fauna selvatica all'economia del paese attrae un milione di turisti all'anno, genera il 12% delle entrate nazionali e dà lavoro direttamente a 230 mila keniani. Perciò, in Kenya e nel resto del continente africano, l'attuale minaccia rappresentata dal bracconaggio ha un impatto disastroso sui mezzi di sostentamento, sul tasso di povertà e sulle opportunità per uno sviluppo sostenibile.

China's Troubled Relationship With Mother Nature 2015-04-05


PHOTO: A tiger foetus pulled from inside its mother, stuffed and glued to a wooden board for sale in the illegal wildlife trade. (ABC News: Lisa Millar)

The US Fish and Wildlife Service runs the Property Repository 30km outside Denver. About 1.5 million animals, or parts of animals, are here — lions, tigers, rhinos and elephants.

Their feet have been turned into garbage cans or holders for ashtrays, their horns into medicine to cure hangovers. 
If you are unprepared, it is a shocking sight. But even knowing what is inside does not stop that initial sharp intake of breath.

Rows and rows of boots made out of cobras and iguanas, rare turtles stuffed and clutching ukuleles. 
"The more endangered the species is, the trend seems to come faster, because there's more money to be made," Coleen Schaefer tells me as we walk along the stacks of dead animals. She said elephants, rhino horns and tigers were highly sought after.


"They call them the big three because their populations are in such dire need of protection. These populations — we could see the complete extinction of elephants in our lifetime, the extinction of tigers in the wild in our lifetime. There are currently more tigers in captivity than there are in the wild," she said.
One of the saddest exhibits is a tiger foetus, pulled from the womb of its mother and stuffed and mounted on what looks like a wooden cheese board.

PHOTO: Two rubbish bins made out of stuffed elephant feet housed at a Property Repository in the United States. (ABC News: Lisa Millar)

Wildlife trade worth between $10 to $40 billion a year. US authorities want the warehouse and its contents to stand as reminders of the vastness and vulgarness of the trade.

It is difficult to estimate the value of the global illegal trade in wildlifeThe US assistant secretary of state, William Brownfield, said it could be anywhere between $10 billion and $40 billion a year.
"Those are big numbers. We're talking about the sort of thing that actually has an impact if it's larger than the GDP of half the countries in the world," Mr Brownfield told the ABC in an interview at the State Department in Washington.
The negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) have included attempts to increase the severity of the punishments and improve efforts to stamp out the trade. But China is one of the biggest culprits and it is not part of the TPP.

Mr Brownfield was ready for the question on why there are not greater penalties against China. "I'm not going to pinpoint one particular country," he said.
"I'm going to be fair. I'm going to say to you China is a major consumer of illegally trafficked wildlife but may I tell you the United States of America is as well"It is illegal but nevertheless a major market. At the end of the day we have to cooperate. If we do not cooperate we are not going to succeed."
There are several reasons why this is becoming increasingly urgent. The number of tigers and elephants in the wild is plummeting. Supply will, tragically, eventually run out. And it is believed terror groups are increasingly using the illegal wildlife trade to fund their activities.
"It's changing from a conservation issue to a global security issue," Ms Shaefer said. "It's about illegal groups generating funds for terrorist activities.
"There's been known cases where they've used wildlife trafficking to fund various organisations because there's a low risk actually in trafficking endangered species. "The sentencing and the punishment are low compared to other sources of drugs and arms for instance," she said.
Mr Brownfield cautioned against overstating the link between the trade and terrorism. "I don't think we have to. I think the illegal wildlife trafficking is in and of itself so repulsive, so repugnant that we don't need to tie it to something else as a matter of making a point."

US warehouse of 1.5 million stuffed animals stands as reminder of horrific illegal wildlife trade Lisa Millar 01 04 2015


È a rischio anche il pappagallo della Tasmania, il cui nome è il parrocchetto di Latham. La popolazione è in forte calo e questi uccelli potrebbero estinguersi nel giro di pochi anni. Lo afferma una ricerca condotta da ricercatori australiani e pubblicata sulla rivista Biological Conservation

I ricercatori sono stati chiarissimi: senza piani per la salvaguardia questi uccelli rischieranno di estinguersi nel giro di soli 16 anni. L'allarme è altissimo soprattutto per l'habitat inificiato e danneggiato dall'opera dell'uomo. Il numero di questi pappagalli potrebbe dimezzarsi ogni quattro anni, con un possibile calo del 94,7% nel prossimo decennio.

La ricerca è durata cinque anni. Gli studiosi hanno scoperto che i pappagalli si spostano tra le diverse aree della Tasmania per riprodursi e cercare il cibo. Ma queste migrazioni sono ostacolate dal disboscamento in atto, che sta distruggendo foreste chiave per la riproduzione e l'habitat dei parrocchetti. Non basta, perché oltre alla deforestazione, il rischio è altissimo anche per colpa dei petauri dello zucchero (anche noti come scoiattoli volanti) che attaccano i pappagallini e li uccidono.  

I ricercatori ritengono sia necessaria una moratoria sul disboscamento nell'habitat di questi pappagalli fino alla realizzazione di nuovi progetti per la loro salvaguardia.  Il rischio è l'estinzione definitiva di un'altra specie. 


A new study shows that Florida's pristine coral reefs are under a growing threat from climate change.
The Miami Herald reported Saturday on the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration study. According to the study, some reefs could be damaged about a dozen years earlier than previously projected. The study found coral bleaching caused by warmer waters could harms sections of the Dry Tortugas reef tract and reefs in areas off the middle Keys as early as 2030.
Bleaching is potentially deadly to colorful corals and the many creatures that thrive inside coral reef habitats.
The scientists used a supercomputer to crunch data on sea temperatures around the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean already identified as vulnerable to bleaching outbreaks. Their findings confirmed that bleaching could be widespread by mid-century and revealed the bleaching might start to show sooner in some areas than others.
Scientists consider reefs an important earlier indicator of more serious trouble.
"They're the canary in a coal mine," said the study's lead author, Ruben van Hooidonk, a University of Miami coral expert.
Decades of coastal run-off, fishing and anchors have already done heavy damage, shrinking Florida's reefs to a fraction of their historic range. Swings in temperature add to the stress. Cold water can kill tropical reef gardens. But increases in temperature, even slight ones, can cause coral to spit out life-sustaining algae. Acidification, another malady linked to climate change and rising carbon in oceans, could also weaken reefs.
Until now, bleaching has occurred periodically, but never regularly.
Cool weather, like the recent cool front, give reefs a respite and chance to rebound.
"The Tortugas has looked great," said Frank Wasson, president of Spree Expeditions who captains the MV Spree to the remote islands some 70 miles west of Key West for dive trips in deeper waters where strong currents have helped keep reefs healthy. "Out on the bank, it has been incredibly healthy."
But that could change under new climate conditions. Last year, divers documented widespread bleaching throughout the Keys that could be worsened by forecasts for another El Nino weather pattern, said Chris Bergh, the South Florida Conservation Director for The Nature Conservancy. Divers are just now starting to assess damage, he said.
By mid-century, Hooidonk said yearly bleaching will likely occur along large swaths of reefs at the south end of Biscayne Bay past Key Largo and from the middle Keys south to the Dry Tortugas. Corals can survive bleaching if waters cool quickly enough to allow algae to return. But prolonged temperature spikes like those predicted by climate models could spell doom.
Scientists are already on the lookout for corals that do better in inhospitable conditions. They could graft those corals onto threatened colonies to fortify valuable reefs.


Several studies have already shown that anthropogenic climate change has pushed marine life toward the brink of a major extinction event

Now, a new study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has found that while disruption of marine ecosystems occurs very rapidly, their recovery from the effects of abrupt climate change might take thousands, not hundreds, of years as previously believed.

“What we’re doing now is a long-term shift -- there’s not a recovery we have to look forward to in my lifetime or my grandchildren's lifetime,” lead author Sarah Moffitt, a scientist from the Bodega Marine Laboratory and Coastal and Marine Sciences Institute at the University of California, Davis, said in a statement.

In order to analyze how ocean ecosystems are affected by climate change and accompanied reduction in dissolved oxygen, researchers studied over 5,400 invertebrate fossils recovered from a sediment core from the ocean floor off Santa Barbara, California. This includes fossil evidence spanning a period between 3,400 and 16,100 years ago -- a time period that also saw a massive “deglaciation” event characterized by abrupt climate warming, melting polar ice caps, and expansion of low oxygen zones in the oceans.

Based on the study of the fossils, the scientists found that the ocean ecosystems seemed to have witnessed a rapid loss of diversity during low oxygen periods -- evidenced by a near-complete disappearance of fossil records. What was more alarming was the fact that while these periods lasted only decades, the damaged ecosystems took thousands of years to bounce back.

“These past events show us how sensitive ecosystems are to changes in Earth’s climate -- it commits us to thousands of years of recovery,” Moffitt said in the statement. Moreover, the findings suggest that similar deoxygenation events taking place currently in Earth’s oceans could have an equally damaging effect on marine ecosystems

It’s a gritty reality we need to face as scientists and people who care about the natural world and who make decisions about the natural world,” she said.

Ocean Ecosystems Damaged By Climate Change Will Take Thousands Of Years To Recover: Study

The United Kingdom's former climate change envoy John Ashton has accused Shell of engineering a “psychopathic” attempt to block action on climate change. 

In an open letter to Shell Chief Executive Ben van Beurden published by the U.K.'s Guardian newspaper, Ashton said the energy giant's recently announced roadmap to cleaning up its environmental portfolio is nothing more than veiled attempt to preserve the “status quo.” 

Ashton accused Beurden of using a cynical argument that “the economic and moral cost” of phasing out fossil fuels “would exceed the benefit in climate change avoided.” 

“In reality your authority is compromised by your obvious desire to cling to what you know, whatever the cost to society,” he stated. 

Ashton continued by arguing, “For a leader in the oil and gas industry to call for continued dependence on oil and gas will sound to most like special pleading.” 

The letter was in response to a speech issued by Beurden in February. During the speech, Beurden argued the fossil fuel industry should be “more assertive” in the climate change debate. “Fossil fuels out, renewables in’ — too often, that’s what it boils down to. Yet in my view, that’s simply naive,” Beurden said. 

Ashton responded by stating, “Nobody has been less aloof, more assertive, nor more influential than the oil and gas industry.” “For a leader in that industry now to express concern that it is not close enough to the climate debate sounds a bit, if you’ll forgive me, like a fish protesting that the ocean it swims through is not wet enough,” he stated.

The former climate change envoy further accused Beurden of expressing “a touch of psychopathy.” “I am sure you are not in your personal life narcissistic, paranoid, and psychopathic. But yours is part of a collective voice, and those attributes color that voice. To that extent you and your peers cannot complain if society increasingly comes to see in your behavior the characteristic marks of the professional narcissist, paranoiac, and psychopath,” he stated.



L’inquinamento sta lentamente cambiando l’assetto ambientale del Pianeta, tant’è che metalli pesanti e pesticidi sono arrivati fin negli abissi oceanici.


La Oregon State University e il britannico CEFAS, hanno recentemente riscontrato in una ricerca condotta nel Golfo di Biscaglia, che i pesci dell’oceano che vivono tra i 600 e i 1600 metri di profondità soffrono di patologie al fegato, tumori, mutazioni genetiche e più in generale problemi di salute riconducibili all’inquinamento.
Per spiegare questo fenomeno i ricercatori hanno sottolineato che nei fondali dei Mari e degli Oceani, anche se incredibile a dirsi visto che parliamo di profondità considerevoli, si accumulano metalli pesanti come mercurio, cadmio, piombo e pesticidi, in poche parole, sostanze tossiche che uccidono la Vita o ne compromettono seriamente i ritmi e gli equilibri.
L’inquinamento dell’ambiente in cui viviamo è una piaga che rischia di trasformarsi in una maledizione per noi esseri umani e per l’intero Pianeta. Questo modello di sviluppo, cieco davanti alla distruzione di ogni cosa e sordo ai segnali che la Natura ci sta mandando, non è in grado di tutelare la nostra salute, il bene più grande che abbiamo.
L’inquinamento ambientale sta soffocando la Vita, negli oceani e non solo. Lavorare ad un modello di crescita che sia in armonia con la Vita è quindi ora imperativo.
Inquinamento: metalli pesanti e pesticidi anche negli abissi 7 aprile 2015 

Deep Ocean Fish Face Health Problems Due to Man-Made Pollution Mar 25, 2015



L'aria nelle città si fa sempre più irrespirabile. Primo colpevole, ma non l'unico, sono le polveri sottili emesse dalle auto, su cui si concentrano gli sforzi dei governi. 

Le contromisure messe in campo in Occidente, dagli Usa all'Europa, rischiano tuttavia di essere inefficaci, soprattutto perché troppo generiche per rispondere a situazioni che variano in base alle peculiarità dei singoli territori. 

A mettere in dubbio le politiche adottate in particolare negli Usa, dove si concentra il 45% della CO2 mondiale imputabile ai trasporti, è un nuovo studio dell'Università di Boston secondo cui, se è vero che le aree urbane sono responsabili del 63% di tutta l'anidride carbonica emessa in atmosfera dalle auto statunitensi, le emissioni non crescono però di pari passo con la densità abitativa, che è invece il parametro preso in esame per calibrare le azioni anti-smog.

Tra il 1980 e il 2012 le emissioni su strada sono aumentate in Usa del 50% passando da 1,04 a 1,55 miliardi di tonnellate, e l'80% dell'incremento si è registrato nelle aree urbane. 

In trent'anni, tuttavia, la popolazione urbana è cresciuta del 49%, mentre le emissioni pro capite nelle città sono aumentate solo del 15%. Nelle aree rurali, invece, la popolazione è lievemente diminuita e le emissioni pro capite sono salite del 22%.

"Questa discrepanza suggerisce che la traiettoria futura delle emissioni pro capite su strada non può essere così fortemente agganciata alle tendenze della densità urbana come precedentemente creduto", scrivono gli esperti, secondo cui vanno analizzati anche altri fattori - reddito pro capite, livello di occupazione, tipologie di lavoro e distanze casa-ufficio - che variano da luogo a luogo. 

L'inquinamento da traffico stradale è un problema molto sentito negli Usa, dove si concentrano il 5% della popolazione mondiale e il 30% delle auto presenti sul Pianeta, ma da cui viene il 45% della CO2 globale imputabile ai trasporti. 

Bakersfield-Delano, in California è la città più inquinata degli Usa. Nel mondo, si legge ancora nel rapporto, il 23% delle emissioni derivanti dai combustibili fossili sono causate dai trasporti, e di queste il 40% è prodotto dalle auto nelle aree urbane.

In Europa le norme sulla qualità dell'aria contrastano le polveri sottili ma, stando a un recente studio capitanato dall'Istituto internazionale per l'analisi applicata dei sistemi, senza ulteriori sforzi sul controllo delle emissioni molte aree europee continueranno ad avere un livello di inquinamento superiore ai limiti fissati dall'Ue e dall'Oms.

Con le leggi attuali l'inquinamento atmosferico resterà critico in Europa orientale, in Polonia meridionale e in diverse grandi città, da Milano a Parigi a Varsavia, scrivono gli esperti. 

Le fonti di inquinamento, spiegano, variano in base all'area geografica, e quasi ovunque il taglio alle emissioni delle auto non basta. 

Bisogna intervenire su altri fattori, due dei quali finora sottovalutati: le emissioni da combustibili solidi per il riscaldamento domestico, soprattutto in in Europa dell'Est; e il particolato secondario inorganico, spinto dalle emissioni di ammoniaca nelle aree a vocazione agricola.

Ambiente. Città sempre più inquinate 07-04-2015
How Suburban Cars Are Clouding Up Cities Apr 7, 2015
The Air In The U.S. Is Less Disgusting Than It Was A Decade Ago June 27, 2014
The Top 10 U.S. Cities with the worst air pollution
Air pollution causes lung cancer, World Health Organization confirms October 17, 2013


Scientists have grave fears for a Hunter Valley woodland threatened by mining, housing and agriculture, with predictions its risk of extinction is extreme.
The New South Wales Scientific Committee said in pre-European days the Hunter Valley Weeping Myall Woodland is estimated to have covered an area up to 200 hectares.
The Committee now estimates up to 93 per cent of the woodland has been reduced, and warns that extinction is very real, strengthening the need for a critically endangered status.
It said habitat loss, associated with land clearing for mining and agricultural pursuits is a factor, along with urban/residential development, weed invasion and inappropriate fire regimes.
It said a relatively large remnant of the woodland is on Wambo Coal mine land at Warkworth, near Singleton, and it may be at risk if longwall mining causes subsidence and flooding.
The Committee said the woodland is highly restricted in distribution in the Muswellbrook, Singleton and Maitland local government areas.

Hunter woodland facing extreme risk of extinction due to mining, housing and agriculture 01 04 2015


New report, "State of Plants," claimed that pollution and climate factors are among the causes of extinction of some species in New Hampshire and New England.
According to The American Register, the report published the list of extinct species. The report has been released by New England Wild Flower Society and according to it, around 3,500 species of plants in the region of New England and New Hampshire are either endangered or nearing extinction
In addition, more that 22 percent of these species are already listed under the rare species hood, as reported by MarketWired.
Among these 3,500 species, 30 percent are non-native plants which are posing a threat to the native plants of the region, invasive plants like these have alarming taken over almost 10 percent of the whole of New England.



The lime-green flowers of the slender orchid known as the Small Whorled Pogonia used to bloom on forested slopes throughout New England, but they — and more than one-third of the region’s native orchids — are disappearing.

In all, 22 percent of all native plant species in New England are now either extinct, rare, or in a state of decline, strangled by invasive vines, trampled by incautious hikers, or drowned by man-made dams, according to a landmark report released Thursday by the New England Wild Flower Society .

The report also found that nearly a third of all the region’s plants are from elsewhere, and an increasing number are considered invasive, which means they are harmful to native flora.

“This is a sign that we’re not taking care of our ecological system,” said Debbi Edelstein, executive director of the New England Wild Flower Society in Framingham. “If the plants are in trouble, the food at our dinner table — and much more — is in trouble.”

Other examples of that trouble are the Smooth Cordgrass, the age-old protector of coastal marshes from erosion that is now threatened by rising sea levels, and Dwarf Ginseng, slow-growing herbs with tubular white flowers that have been overharvested for their reputed medicinal benefits.

The society’s 87-page “State of the Plants” report found that 593 out of nearly 2,500 native plants throughout the region are listed as rare, threatened, endangered, or are believed to be in decline.

Overall, the report found that 31 percent of all the region’s plants are not native to New England, while 10 percent of those, or 111 species, are considered invasive.

The report also found that 96 species of native flora have disappeared from New England, though they live elsewhere, and three native plants are now extinct: Kennedy’s hawthorn; which used to live near the summit of mountains in northern Vermont; Smooth-glumed slender crabgrass, which disappeared after being destroyed by hikers in southern New Hampshire; and Robbins’ milk-vetch, which perished as a result of the damming of the Connecticut River.

“When so many of our plants are becoming rarer, it doesn’t mean the others are fine,” said Elizabeth Farnsworth, a senior research ecologist at the Wild Flower Society and the author of the report. “They are the canaries in the coal plants.”

She expects that the number of plants declining or vanishing is likely to increase in coming years, especially as humans continue to burn fossil fuels and the climate changes.

Temperatures in Northeastern states have risen by 2 degrees Fahrenheit over the past century, and are predicted to soar as much as 10 degrees by the end of the century. That means common species in New England that can’t tolerate higher temperatures, such as sugar maple trees, are likely to begin dying off in large numbers, and lethal insects such as the hemlock woolly adelgid will proliferate, Farnsworth said.


Other flora in the region that are likely to disappear include Sandplain Agalinis, the victim of overdevelopment after millennia of bearing bright pink flowers on coastal plains, Farnsworth said.  

The warmer weather is already bringing flora farther north, such as kudzu, noxious weeds that choke native trees and plants or deprive them of light by creating a dense canopy. In recent years, state environmental officials have reported finding a smattering of kudzu in eastern Massachusetts and Connecticut, Farnsworth said.

The loss of plants and the rise of invasive species is part of a worldwide phenomenon. The report cites a global survey by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature that found more than half of 19,000 species examined are considered at risk.

The report noted that nearly 13 million acres of land a year are being developed around the world.

Paul Smith, secretary general of Botanic Gardens Conservation International, an advocacy group that represents 500 botanic gardens around the world, said the worst losses are occurring in tropical countries such as Madagascar, which has lost about a third of its native plants in the past 30 years.

He said the problems are accelerating as the human population increases, development advances, and more carbon dioxide pours into the atmosphere.

“The outlook is pretty grim,” Smith said.

He and others noted that the loss of plants means less carbon dioxide converted to oxygen, reduced cleansing of the air of pollutants, and diminished biodiversity, which will mean the loss of food sources and potential medical treatments.

Other findings of the report include:

■ The overpopulation of deer, increased reliance on dams, and widespread use of pesticides and herbicides, which kill pollinators and other insects, are taking a toll on the region’s plant diversity.

■ Declining species are most likely to be found in the region’s meadows; shorelines; and rocky areas such as cliffs.

■ After a century of rebuilding the forests of New England, which were decimated by logging, the region’s woodlands are declining again.

Lynn Harper, a habitat protection specialist at the Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program in Westborough, called the report “sobering and shocking.”

“It’s not being alarmist or overblowing the situation,” she said. “We’re facing a really serious situation. Native plants are really facing a lot of threat.”

New England’s plants face significant threat, report says David Abel

Some quick action needs to be taken before the native plants get totally destroyed. The extinction of these plants will not only affect the plant kingdom, it will have an adverse effect on the human beings as well, the report says.
Plants are essential for both bird survival as well as human survival and the extinction report has already rung the alarm bell for the environmental scientists to replenish these plants.

Pollution, Climate Factors Cause Extinction of Species, Says 'State of the Plants' Report Aishwarya Bhatt | Mar 30, 2015


A rare flowering plant that once found in abundance on the slopes of Nelliampathy is on the verge of extinction in Kerala, largely due to unchecked granite quarrying.

Dipcadi montanum, a highly endangered plant found normally in the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia, was found across the Nelliampathy region till two decades ago. Nelliampathy was the only area in Kerala where the plant was spotted so far.

According to V. Suresh and Sajan Jose of Government Victoria College here, the last plant of Dipcadi montanum was found inside a granite quarry at Vengapara, near Seetharkund, on the slopes of Nelliampathy two weeks ago. 

With the increase in mercury level, that plant also disappeared

Two years ago, they, along with P.V. Madhusoodanan and Praksh Kumar of the Malabar Botanical Garden, Kozhikode, had found the plant in large numbers at Vengapara. On the second anniversary, they were able to spot only one plant. 

After spotting it in 2013, they had written an article in the Journal of Bombay Natural History Society. The hill ranges that form part of the southern portion of the Palakkad Gap had nine species of the Dipcadi family. One by one, all of them have fallen victim to the greed of quarry mafias.

Rare plant on the verge of extinction March 31, 2015

The loss of Asia’s biodiversity could also mean the loss of future drugs, with natural products the source of more than a third of the drugs available on the market. 

Biodiversity is the laboratory of the earth functioning as both limited and unlimited sources of essential requirements to sustain life. It pertains to diversity of life forms in terrestrial and marine environments. 

Asia, which covers about 30 percent of the earth’s land area, has some of the world’s most biologically diverse countries. The richness of biodiversity in Asia covers the use of plants associated with traditional knowledge by the mega-diverse countries from this continent: China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. 

About 7,000 species are cultivated for food and about 35 animal species have been domesticated for use in agriculture and food production. The vast diversified species on earth thriving on both land and sea are also a rich source of potential drug candidates. 

About 80 percent of the people in developing countries use plants to accommodate their primary health needs. To date, natural products account for more than one-third of the approved drugs in the market, making up 39 percent of the total drugs approved between 1983 and 1994 in 33 different disease areas. 

Since the discovery of morphine from opium (Papaver somniferum L.) in China, many drugs have been developed from plant sources. These include the anti-malaria drug artemisinin from the Chinese herb (Artemisia annua L.) and paclitaxel from Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia Nutt.), which is used as chemotherapeutic drug for breast and lung cancer treatment. 

Today, artemisinin and its derivatives possess the most rapid action of all current drugs against malaria while paclitaxel is on the WHO’s list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system. 

Marine natural products have also drawn attention with the discovery of almost 8,500 products. One example is the drug isolated from the venom of the cone snail called conotoxin, a group of neurotoxic peptides used for treatment of post-surgical and neuropathic pain. 

This affluence of natural products poses challenges for scientists to explore the potential reservoir of drug candidates. Ironically, we are just starting to realize these potential benefits that Mother Nature has already been providing us since the start of civilization. 

According to the report of the UN University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS) in Hokkaido University in 2010, global biodiversity is changing at an unprecedented rate and scale due to human activities

In 2008, Asia and the Pacific recorded the world’s highest number of threatened species, with serious problems found in Southeast Asia. This problem can be attributed to the geometric rise in human population and large human activities, which have led to deforestation and the drastic transformation of natural landscapes into urbanized areas

These populated places have subsequently given birth to a number of destructive factors such as pollution that in turn have caused global warming

Industrial and agricultural wastes have also brought catastrophic upheaval to the balance of species. 

One example is wastewater being dumped into waterways in which 12 percent of animal species thrive and depend. 

All these pose a serious threat to sustainable development and the survival of species

Once these species are gone, regeneration may take about five to ten million years. 

These threats have likewise meant lost opportunities for drug discovery and drug development from natural products. Where plant species are concerned, medicinal plants face a high risk of extinction in Asia and the Pacific

It is estimated that some 25,000 species of plants will cease to exist

Forest loss has been particularly dramatic in the Philippines. In Indonesia, from 1990 to 2000, logging accelerated with an annual deforestation rate of 1.7 percent. Because of this, local extinction of species has become common. 

Some countries has started interventions to impede environmental degradation. The Philippines, through resource management such as the logging ban, large-scale logging is being reduced. Democratization, decentralization and a new protected areas system were also instituted through the National Integrated Protected Area System

Indonesia has also made steps to protect ecological balance and biodiversity. Management of resources in the vast archipelago was implemented way back under the New Order Regime of then president Suharto. Decentralization for the entire archipelago of Indonesia was carried out wherein two laws were executed in relation to administrative policies granting more political autonomy to provinces and the other one with financial aspects. 

International organizations have also been established for the preservation of biodiversity. In Asia, two networks continue to foster, protect and preserve biodiversity—the UNU-IAS and the ASEAN-Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines and Traditional Medicine Innovation (NDI). The UNU-IAS is a global think-tank whose mission is to advance knowledge and promote learning in policy making to meet the challenges of sustainable development. It launched the Global Land Project that promotes land change science for environmental sustainability. On the other hand, the ASEAN-NDI aims to ensure that health technology development and the capacity of ASEAN member states are appropriately maximized and managed according to regional health needs. 

One goal of this network is to develop integrated research programs for the production and use of traditional medicine and medicinal plants wherein protection of biodiversity is of concern. These small steps will become bigger once the general public, and not only scientists, take part in the conservation of biodiversity. 

Asian Medical Plants Face Extinction Risk April 2, 2015 Antonio Ligsay and Zypher Jude Regencia 



Enter the desert pupfish, a tiny fish that has been playing evolutionary catch-up due to the extreme changes in its environment over the last 10,000 years. The shrinking scope of its natural habitat has caused the pupfish to adapt in a surprising way—it essentially goes without oxygen for up to five hour stretches.

Researchers Frank van Breukelen and Stanley D. Hillyard from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, study these small fish, which measure just two inches in length and call the warm springs near Death Valley their home. The alteration in the  metabolism is an example of physiological plasticity, adjustments that organisms make to better function in the face of dramatic environmental changes. Unfortunately for the pupfish, their adjustments are allowing this endangered species to merely survive rather than flourish.
"The entire Southwest of the USA was much wetter in its recent past. Just 10,000 years ago, Death Valley was inundated by 100 meters of water and was called Lake Manley. The word Mojave is derived from a word that meant 'by the water,'" van Breukelen explains. "When those waters receded, pupfish were isolated to their current habitats which mostly consist of warm springs. Essentially, these fish spent most of their evolutionary history in cooler waters until recently when the fish were isolated to waters that are as high as 35 °C (95 °F). It follows that the fish may not be well-adapted to those warm springs because there hasn't been much time to evolve."
One coping mechanism that the pupfish have developed is to randomly cycle between periods of consuming oxygen and going without. During these periods of non-oxygen-based respiration (anaerobism), the fishes' metabolism must work approximately 15 times harder, a surprising choice in habitats where food is scarce.
"There may be some detrimental aspects to using oxygen at these ecologically relevant high temperatures. Mitochondria are the primary site of oxygen use in the cell," van Breukelen says. Mitochondria are structures within the cells that convert energy from food into a form that cells can use to function properly. "Our data suggest the fish are shutting down their mitochondria in order to avoid production of  (free radicals) due to the . Using a metabolic strategy that is 15 times less efficient may not be ideal, but the cellular circumstances might demand its use."
The fish also produce ethanol, a byproduct of their anaerobic metabolism that feeds into their decreasing use of oxygen. "We think that  produce some ethanol, which then fosters the closure of mitochondrial channels that allow for delivery of substrates, which further limits  use."

On the edge of extinction: Tiny pupfish go without breathing to survive their harsh environment April 1, 2015


Changes in the biochemical balance of the ocean were a crucial factor in the end-Triassic mass extinction, during which half of all plant, animal and marine life on Earth perished, according to new research involving the University of Southampton.
The study, published in the upcoming edition of Geology, reveals that a condition called 'marine photic zone euxinia' took place in the Panathalassic Ocean- the larger of the two oceans surrounding the supercontinent of Pangaea.
Photic zone euxinia occurs when the sun-lit surface waters of the ocean become devoid of oxygen and are poisoned by hydrogen sulphide - a by-product of microorganisms that live without oxygen that is extremely toxic to most other lifeforms.
The international team of researchers studied fossilised organic molecules extracted from sedimentary rocks that originally accumulated on the bottom of the north-eastern Panthalassic Ocean, but are now exposed on the Queen Charlotte Islands, off the coast of British Columbia, Canada.
The team found molecules derived from photosynthesising brown-pigmented green sulphur bacteria - microorganisms that only exist under severely anoxic conditions - proving severe oxygen depletion and  poisoning of the upper ocean at the end of Triassic, 201 million years ago.
The researchers also documented marked changes in the nitrogen composition of organic matter, indicating that disruptions in marine nutrient cycles coincided with the development of .
Previous studies have reported evidence of photic zone euxinia from terrestrial and shallow, near-shore environments during the latest Triassic, but the new research is the first to provide such evidence from an open ocean setting, indicating these changes may have occurred on a global scale.
The University of Southampton's Professor Jessica Whiteside, who co-authored the study, explains: "As tectonic plates shifted to break up Pangaea, huge volcanic rifts would have spewed carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, leading to rising temperatures from the greenhouse effect. The rapid rises in CO2 would have triggered changes in  circulation, acidification and deoxygenation."
"These changes have the potential to disrupt  and alter food chains essential for the survival of marine ecosystems. Our data now provides direct evidence that anoxic, and ultimately euxinic, conditions severely affected food chains."
"The same CO2 rise that led to the oxygen depleted oceans also led to a mass extinction on land, and ultimately to the ecological take-over by dinosaurs, although the mechanisms are still under study."
Although the Earth was very different during the Triassic Period compared to today, the rate of carbon dioxide release from volcanic rifts are similar to those that we are experiencing now through the burning of fossil fuels.
Professor Whiteside comments: "The release of CO2 was probably at least as rapid as that caused by the burning of fossil fuels today, although the initial concentrations were much higher in the Triassic. The consequences of rapidly rising CO2 in ancient times inform us of the possible consequences of our own  crisis."
More information: "Episodic photic zone euxinia in the northeastern Panthalassic Ocean during the end-Triassic extinction." Geology April 2015 DOI: 10.1130/G36371.1

Oxygen-depleted toxic oceans had key role in mass extinction over 200 million years ago April 1, 2015

RACING EXTINCTION La Scomparsa della Vita sulla Terra March 21, 2015

No comments:

Post a Comment

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...